Two one-hour films and eighteen slide-cassette programs on the history of LaPorte County have been researched, written and produced by the project staff. Over historic photographs have been copied onto 35mm slides; 70 of them have been included in this booklet. Over older residents of the county have been interviewed on topics ranging from maple sugar harvesting to reminiscences of an era of horse troughs and one-room schools.
Italian Migration To Australia Italian migration to Australia in the late 19th century and much of the 20th century was fueled by the same factors that drove Italians to the Americas - political upheaval and poor economic conditions at home. But changes in the US immigration policy had a direct effect on the flow to Australian shores.
Perhaps the simplest way to document the story of Italian migration to Australia is in the form of a timeline, starting with a historic voyage that marks the beginning of Australia's colonial history: Captain James Cook sailed his ship, the Endeavor, into Botany Bay on Australia's east coast, claiming the land in the name of the British crown.
One of his crew was an Italian seaman named Antonio Ponto, so the first Italian to set foot on Australian soil did so at the very beginning of the colony's 'official' history. But he was not the first Italian to actually see Australia.
One, Antonio Pigafetta, recorded the epic journey in his log. Later, inAlessandro Malaspina led a scientific voyage to the South Pacific on behalf of the Spanish crown. He dropped anchor in at the British colony at Port Jackson, where two of the Italian artists on board captured the harsh Australian landscape.
There was a small number of Italian convicts who had been unfortunate enough to be arrested by the British and transported to the penal colony in New South Wales. But the majority of prisoners were from the British Isles.
Italian missionaries escaping negative conditions in Italy sailed to Australia to help 'convert' the aborigines to Christianity.
Many returned home in defeat, but some stayed and enjoyed a harmonious relationship with the indigenous people, much to the chagrin of the British overseers.
The first Italian community was established in the Victorian goldfields. InRafaello Carboni, a participant in the miners' rebellion at Ballarat, recorded the only eyewitness account of the infamous Eureka Stockade.
The census recorded Italians resident in the state of Victoria. The census was the first to record the number of Italian migrants in all states of Australia.
One source reported 1, Italians resident in the state of Victoria, while another puts the figure at A commercial treaty between the King of Italy and the United Kingdom the governors of Australia granted Italian residents of Australia the following long-overdue rights: After the treaty came into effect, a thin flow of Italian migration to Australia continued until The census recorded 3, Italians resident in the state of Victoria.
In the same year, several hundred immigrants from Piedmont, Veneto and Sicily arrived in North Queensland to work in the sugar cane industry. The majority of sugar cane growers in North Queensland were Italians who employed other Italians.
Older established growers tried and failed to drive them from the industry. The US government imposed stringent quotas on immigration from Italy, forcing many young Italians who had planned to immigrate to the USA to choose Australia instead. The number of Italians in Australia trebled. Most were poor and illiterate, from rural areas.
Their rural backgrounds allowed many to excel in farming and viticulture wine growingbut others were forced to find work in factories, mining and retail particularly in food related businesses such as fruit shops, delicatessens and bakeries. The first Italian-Australian association was formed in Brisbane, Queensland.
Similar organizations had been formed in all the major cities. Approximately 38, Italians were now living in Australia. Italy's alliance with Germany against the Allies added more pressure to an already negative situation.
Many of the prisoners' wives were unable to hold onto their homes in the absence of the family breadwinner, and were forced to take their children and seek shelter with friends and relatives.
In addition, 8, prisoners of war, many of them Italian, were shipped from the United Kingdom and other Allied bases to Australia for internment.
Due to food shortages caused by the imprisonment of Italian-Australian farmers, many of the prisoners were commandeered to work on the land, and many chose to immigrate to Australia after the war ended.
Large-scale immigration of Europeans displaced after World War II created a major shift in the ethnic composition of the Australian population. Established migrants sponsored their families and relatives, leading to a peak in immigration levels.
As the economy grew, the Italian migration to Australia continued, with many gravitating to North Queensland where they worked in the sugar cane industry.A study on Dundee reveals that in the early s there were only two Catholic churches and three Catholic schools, one of which the Dundee Advertiser described as a ‘cellar under the Chapel’, which served a community of around 20, Their circumstances were still dire in , when there were only Catholic schools, staffed by teachers and pupil teachers.
Nativism was common in Canada (though the term originated in the U.S.). It took several forms. Hostility to the Chinese and other Asians was intense, and involved provincial laws that hindered immigration of Chinese and Japanese and blocked their economic mobility.
Italian migration to Australia in the late 19th century and much of the 20th century was fueled by the same factors that drove Italians to the Americas - political upheaval and poor economic conditions at .
Nativism was common in Canada (though the term originated in the U.S.). It took several forms. Hostility to the Chinese and other Asians was intense, and involved provincial laws that hindered immigration of Chinese and Japanese and blocked their economic mobility. Italian navigators and explorers played a key role in the exploration and settlement of the Americas by Europeans. Christopher Columbus, the explorer who first reached the Americas in –, was pfmlures.comr notable Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who explored the east coast of South America between and , is the source of the name America. MODERN ERA A part of Austria until and then Yugoslavia, with a period of German and Italian occupation and the brutal communist revolution between and , Slovenia organized the first free post-war elections in the spring of
Japanese American internment, the forced relocation by the U.S. government of thousands of Japanese Americans to detention camps during World War pfmlures.com action was the culmination of the federal government’s long history of racist and discriminatory treatment of Asian immigrants and their descendants that had begun with restrictive immigration policies in the late s.
Learn about immigration on Ellis Island in this interactive, virtual tour. Facts about immigration, pictures of Ellis Island, oral histories, and videos help explain the immigration process to kids. He says the barometer makers came mainly from the Northern region of Lake Como, Lombardy, Italy.
Italy was very poor at the time, and rife with political struggles that would eventually lead to the unification of the peninsula and the birth of the Italian nation.