Japan's Geography 1 A country's geography influences the development of its society and culture in many ways. Its location in relation to other nations has an effect on intercultural influences; its size affects demography, the development of social structures, and its position in the international community.
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While it is difficult to separate these factors, they can be broken down into five major categories: Most developing nations of the world face development challenges as a result of a combination of these factors.
Some environmental factors which contribute to a country's level of development, such as natural disasters, are beyond human control.
The majority of the development issues discussed in this chapter, however, have been created and continue due to the direct actions of humans. The very high rate and level of development experienced by most rich countries of the world is another factor which perpetuates many challenges faced by people in developing countries.
Historical factors that hinder development Studying the past gives humans an enormous insight into the present. Using historical analysis in development geography helps to explain why many countries face development challenges, because a country's history is a huge contributing factor to its level of development.
Often, analysing a country's history will provide explanations for many of the political, economic, social and environmental factors that also contribute to its level of development. In developing countries of the world today, one of the most significant historical factors that has hindered development is colonisation.
Colonisation occurs when a country or group of people who wish to control 'new' territories form permanent settlements or colonies there. It usually involves the large-scale movement of people from the colonising power also known as the mother or parent country to the 'new' territory the colony.
Colonisation also usually involves the domination of the original inhabitants of the colony the indigenous population. See animation one In most historical cases, colonisation has occurred as a result of the colonising power's desire to exploit new lands and peoples for their own economic and political gain.
Natural resources, agricultural commodities, minerals, plants and spices are some common examples of products that colonising powers throughout history have taken from their colonies.
In addition to this, the indigenous populations of colonies have often been forced to work under slave-like conditions for colonising powers. In almost all instances, land has been taken away from indigenous peoples and divided amongst colonial settlers.
This was the case during the Age of Colonialism, which began in the early 16th century, soon after Christopher Columbus first arrived in the Americas. For centuries following this 'discovery' inthe European colonial powers of Spain, Portugal, France, England and the Netherlands formed colonies in North, Central and South America, which had a detrimental effect on the indigenous culture and heritage of these regions.
At the same time colonisation was occurring in the Americas, the same process was unfolding throughout large sections of Asia and Africa. It is considered an effect of colonisation that today the regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America comprise the least developed countries of the world. See animation two Political factors that hinder development The political environment of a country, which is often closely linked to its history, also has a significant impact on its level of development.
In general, governments have the power to take actions which direct a country's social and economic development. In many developing countries with unstable political histories, however, government corruption and greed have caused problems which have hindered such progress.
Wars caused by political tensions - within and between countries - also hinder governments' abilities to find solutions to development challenges. This is because wars are very costly and cause widespread death and destruction.
Wars also often cause disunity amongst the population, which can lead to a breakdown in social cohesion. Developing countries that lack a stable system of government or those that have experienced or are experiencing war, often become burdened with political crises which impede their development.
These political problems can sometimes become firmly established and some countries can find it difficult to recover from them. Economic factors that hinder development The debt cycle Many developing countries of the world are heavily indebted owing money to international financial institutions and foreign banks based in developed countries.
The debt these countries are facing today is a result of large loans that were issued to them during the s and s. While these loans initially came attached with low interest rates, over time the banks which lent out the money have increased the interest rates on repayments.
In most cases, interest rates have been increased to levels which are near impossible for developing countries to meet. In this way, debts continue to accumulate, and the money which could be spent by governments on such things as infrastructure and healthcare is spent on repaying debts.
Another factor which has exacerbated both the debt crisis and economic challenges in general in many developing countries is government corruption. Some of the countries which borrowed money from foreign creditors or international banks, for example, have since undergone periods of dictatorial rule.Explain the geographical challenges resulting from a greying population An aging of population (also known as demographic aging, and population aging) is a summary term for shifts in the age distribution (i.e.
age structure) of a population toward older ages. 5 The consequences of rapid population growth This chapter shows that rapid population growthat rates above 2 percent, common in most developing countries todayacts as a brake on.
(2) Population aging is particularly rapid among women, resulting in “feminization” of population aging (because of lower mortality rates among women).
For example, in the United States, there were million older women and million older men in , or a sex ratio of women for every men.
Explain the Geographical Challenges Resulting from a Greying Population Essay Explain the geographical challenges resulting from a greying population An aging of population (also known as demographic aging, and population aging) is a summary term for shifts in the age distribution (i.e.
age structure) of a population toward older ages. An economy with a significant share of seniors and retirees has different demand drivers than an economy with a higher birth rate and a larger working-age population.
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