Introduction One of the major claims made regarding qualitative methods is that they diverge from scientific explanation models in terms of the need for hypothesis testing. A scientific hypothesis is based on a background theory, typically assuming the form of a proposition whose validity depends on empirical confirmation. Otherwise, a hypothesis is nothing but an imaginative conjecture.
Contact Author There were philosophers before Plato but they mostly served as tutors for children of the rich. Plato was the first to ask many of the questions that philosophers would be obsessed with for the next couple thousand years. Plato and Socrates It is difficult to talk about Plato without talking about Socrates and it is difficult to talk about Socrates without talking about Plato.
Socrates never wrote anything down and so a lot of our perception of who he was and what he thought comes from Plato. What we know of Socrates is mostly as a literary character. The legend about Socrates goes that the Oracle of Delphi proclaimed him the wisest man in all of Athens.
Confused by this, Socrates went around and talked to all the men who he thought were wiser than he was. After talking to them and questioning them he found that their beliefs were full of contradictions and when he pointed this out to them they became upset.
Afterwards, he came away with the belief that the oracle had been right. Socrates established the role of the philosopher to question everything. Because he constantly questioned the values of society, criticized politicians and proposed ideas that made the establishment nervous he was finally put on trial for corrupting the youth and for not worshipping the correct Gods.
With The Republic, Plato struck out on his own philosophical territory, and while it still has a literary structure with Socrates as our hero, we are seeing a systematic philosophy start to take hold for the first time. Early in the book Socrates encounters the character of Thrasymachus who insists that justice is the interest of the stronger.
This was a common viewpoint in ancient Greece.
This was a society that valued strength above everything else and it was Thrasymachus who held the view that it was acceptable to dominate others, lie, cheat and steal if one of strong enough to get away with it.
A story we are given to illustrate this is the ring of Gyges. Gyges is given a ring that makes him invisible and the story is used to argue that no man would be just if he could commit unjust acts without being caught or punished.
What Virtue Ethics states is that the reasoning of what is moral is determined by the person moral agent rather than by rules or consequences. These parts are reason, spirit and appetite. He argues that the human soul must have at least two parts in order to explain why we have so many psychological conflicts.
It could be seen that reason is our thinking ability to judge, spirit our emotional ability to feel empathy and appetite our desires but you will always have people who read the book and see it differently.
The point for Plato however, is that we need to balance these three parts of our souls in order to make good ethical choices. The whole point of being moral is to balance these three parts of us to keep us healthy and sane. Letting one take too much control of our minds is not good for us and leads to bad decisions.
His defenders point out that while it may seem that way to us today we must look at it in historical context. Plato was thinking of his ideal government as a city state and this is a relatively small area where those who did not approve of the government could move to another city state that they found less objectionable.
Private families no longer exist and the social mobility of women is greatly increased because they are no longer expected to simply play the role of wife and mother.Books, Essays, Quotes, Interviews on W.
V. Quine, mathematician and philosopher including list of books, articles, dissertations, essays, students, and travels.
Includes links to other Willard Van Orman Quine Internet resources as well as to other Family Web Sites by Douglas Boynton Quine. J. L. Mackie - Ethics~ Inventing Right and Wrong (, ) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.
Key Concepts Behaviorism is a worldview that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e.
tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement .
Oct 07, · Rawls is considered by many to be the most important political philosopher of the 20th Century and his landmark book, A Theory of Justice, is praised for having attempted to unite a lot of competing political theories that many had judged incompatible.
In the 19th century, political philosophy had split between the radical egalitarianism of Karl Marx and the concepts of personal liberty and Reviews: 5. This is a review of the concepts and common debates within ‘Theory of Change’ (ToC) material, resulting from a search and detailed analysis of available donor, agency and expert guidance documents.
pfmlures.com: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (): Rudolf Carnap: Books.